作者：子產 / 出處：無
美國聯邦調查局現階段主要職掌項目如下：反恐怖活動(counterterrorism)、毒品或組織犯罪(drugs/organized crime)、外國反情報(foreign counterintelligence，屬間諜罪範疇)、暴力犯罪(violent crimes)、白領犯罪(white-collar crimes)，均不離犯罪調查工作。
另該局另有從事一項與追訴犯罪無關之情報蒐集工作，即「政府重要職位提名人」之身家及忠誠調查(background security checks concerning nominees to sensitive)。
FBI INVESTIGATIVE RESPONSIBILITIES
The FBI's investigative authority is the broadest of all federal law enforcement agencies. Therefore, the FBI has adopted an investigative approach which stresses long-term, complex investigations. The FBI's investigative philosophy emphasizes close relations and information sharing with other federal, state, local, and international law enforcement and intelligence agencies. A significant number of FBI investigations are conducted in concert with other law enforcement agencies or as part of joint task forces.
CATEGORIES OF INVESTIGATIVE PROGRAMS
The FBI has divided its investigations into a number of programs, such as Applicant Matters, Civil Rights, Domestic and International Terrorism, Foreign Counterintelligence, Organized Crime/Drugs, Violent Crimes and Major Offenders, and White-Collar Crime. These programs represent the FBI's responsibilities as assigned by law. Individual cases in a particular program may receive extensive investigative attention because of their size, potential impact on public safety, or sensitivity. Investigations are conducted within the Attorney General's Guidelines, which govern racketeering enterprises, general criminal investigations, undercover operations, criminal information matters, extraterritorial investigations, and domestic security/terrorism matters. The Guidelines afford centralized direction, which allows for greater uniformity and control of national and international law enforcement efforts. Some sensitive investigative methods, such as undercover activities and court-ordered electronic surveillance, are subject to specific and rigorous review and approval procedures.
EXAMPLES OF INVESTIGATIVE MATTERS
A number of examples follow that illustrate the kinds of cases that can be opened in the different investigative programs.
The FBI's Applicant Program manages background investigations on all persons who apply for positions with the Department of Energy, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Department of Justice, and the FBI. The program also oversees background checks for Presidential Appointees and U.S. Court Candidates. Background investigations involve interviewing neighbors and co-workers of applicants and checking criminal and credit records.
The FBI's Civil Rights Program investigates violations of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Equal Credit Opportunity Act. The program also oversees police brutality and housing discrimination matters. Most recently, the Civil Rights Program was charged with enforcing the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act, which bars conduct that would obstruct access to reproductive health facilities.
The FBI is the lead federal law enforcement agency in the fight against terrorism in the U.S. In carrying out this responsibility, the Domestic Terrorism Program investigates threats involving atomic energy, weapons of mass destruction, sabotage, hostage-taking, and civil unrest.
NATIONAL FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE
The FBI is also the lead counterintelligence agency within the U.S. Intelligence Community. The National Foreign Intelligence Program is tasked with preventing foreign espionage, economic espionage, and with investigating foreign counterintelligence cases within U.S. borders. The program is also involved in international terrorism threats, weapons of mass destruction threats, and attacks on the nation's critical infrastructures (i.e., communications, banking systems, and transportation systems.)
ORGANIZED CRIME/DRUG CASES
Organized crime and drug matters are linked under the Organized Crime/Drug Program (OCDP) because many of the organized crime groups are drawn to the lucrative profits associated with drug trafficking. The OCDP investigates criminal enterprises, illegal drug cases, money laundering matters, and labor racketeering cases, often under the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations statute. The OCDP also coordinates national Organized Crime/Drug Enforcement Task Forces.
The Violent Crimes and Major Offenders Program (VCMOP) investigates threatened or actual injury or loss of life, including cases of kidnapping, sexual exploitation of children, extortion, bank robbery, consumer product tampering, crimes on Indian reservations, and Unlawful Flight to Avoid Prosecution. The VCMOP also oversees cases involving threatened or actual assault kidnapping, or murder involving the President, Vice President, or Members of Congress.
The White-Collar Crime Program the largest of the FBI's criminal programs targets such criminal activity as money laundering, bank fraud and embezzlement, public corruption, environmental crimes, fraud against the government, health care fraud, election law violations, and telemarketing fraud.